Categories
Criminal Justice

Directions: Read the discussion post 1 and 2 and respond with two paragraph each

Directions: Read the discussion post 1 and 2 and respond with two paragraph each.
Adhere to the following guidelines listed below. Use APA format for reference and include page numbers when citing information.
Discussion Post 1: The United States constitution has divided the government into three branches, the judicial, the executive, and the legislative. The legislative branch is comprised of the house of representative and the senate and is the branch that is responsible for making laws. In lay mans term an idea for creating a law or a bill as it is called is introduced in the house of representatives, it is then voted on and with a majority vote it is then send to the senate where it is debated on again before being voted on and if successful it goes to the President of the United States who sign it into law.
What is Federalism and why does it create fifty-two lawmaking jurisdictions in the United States.
Federalism as it related to the fifty-two states in the United States of America is an agreement among all the states to be govern by a set of rules where they all have equal say n the laws and making of these laws while maintaining certain freedom to also govern themselves. The states all have their own government who decided to make a larger government which is the federal government whose job is to take care of the interest of all its members.
(2)
The constitutional amendments at issue in the case of Duncan vs Louisiana are the six and the fourteenth amendments. The sixth amendment gives Ducan the rights to a trial by a jury of his peers and the fourteenth amendment gives him his due process rights meaning that he has the legal right afforded to him as a citizen of the United States.
The court ruled in favor of the petitioner Gary Duncan, “the court found that the sixth amendment guarantee of trial by jury in criminal cases was fundamental to the American scheme of justice, and that States were obliged under the fourteenth amendment to provide such trial” (Spitzer, 2021).
Discussion Post 2:
1. How would you explain the lawmaking structure of the United States to someone totally unfamiliar with the Constitution? Specifically, what is federalism and why does it create fifty-two lawmaking jurisdictions in the United States.
 
Congress is the legislative branch of the federal government and makes laws for the US. Congress consists of  two legislative bodies: the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives. An elected official of either body can propose a new law. A bill is a proposal for a new law. A bill must be researched and discussed. There are often changes made to a bill before it is put up to be voted on. After the parties agree on a bill, the president has the option to sign or deny a bill (veto). The president’s veto a bill can be overridden by Congress voting and it can become a law(How Laws are Made, 2019).  
Federalism is a system of government in which the same territory is controlled by two levels of government. Generally, an overarching national government is responsible for broader governance of larger territorial areas, while the smaller subdivisions, states, and cities govern the issues of local concern(Federalism,2018).DC and Puerto Rico is also included. Therefore, this is why there are 52 lawmaking jurisdictions in the United States.
 
2. After reading the opinion   explain the following: 
* Which Constitutional amendment is at issue in the case, and what is the importance of the rights it encompasses?
The  constitutional amendment that is being questioned in this case is the Fourteenth Amendment. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees the right to a jury trial in all criminal cases which, where they to be tried in a federal court, would come within the Sixth Amendment’s guarantee (“Duncan v. Louisiana – 391 U.S. 145, 88 S. Ct. 1444,” 2021).
* What did the United States Supreme Court decide in this case and why?
* A defendant was denied a trial by jury due to a Louisiana Constitution. This constitution grants jury trials only in cases in which capital punishment or imprisonment at hard labor may be impose. The supreme court ruled in favor of the defendant. The Court ruled that a crime punishable by two years in prison was a serious crime and not a petty offense. The defendant was entitled to a jury trial and the trial court erred in denying it(“Duncan v. Louisiana – 391 U.S. 145, 88 S. Ct. 1444,” 2021).

Categories
Criminal Justice

Students must type out an essay briefing three cases. The three cases to be brie

Students must type out an essay briefing three cases. The three cases to be briefed are Williams V. Florida, Apodaca V. Oregon, and Johnson V. Louisiana.

Categories
Criminal Justice

I want everyone to share their opinions as to the American Penal System by answe

I want everyone to share their opinions as to the American Penal System by answering the following questions. First I ask that you make sure to read the Latessa Chapters first and understand the four core principles of incarceration.
please see attachment for reading to complete assignment as well as link for video

You have been assigned a plethora of videos to watch during the first couple of weeks, when considering the Historical approach of the American Penal System what is your opinion about the progress and changes that our penal system has underwent through the last 100 years. [there is a host of topics you can address in this answer.]
Why do you think prisons in America are for violent and dangerous? If you could propose something to make incarceration purposeful in achieving the goals of incarceration what would you propose? [Incorporate the theoretical purposes of incarceration in your answer].

Categories
Criminal Justice

Attached file of instructions chapter referenced text book used and digital acce

Attached file of instructions chapter referenced text book used and digital access. Must be written in a pro American conservative point of view references must be used exactly as stated in the instructions file. This is a class for PhD in Criminal Justice.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Oral presentations during the first half of class Your presentation should be o

Oral presentations during the first half of class
Your presentation should be on either your Journal Article # 1 or # 2. Requirements for the presentation:
Visual presentation using PowerPoint, Prezi or similar platform
4-6 minute oral presentation
Summarize the original article
Include your opinion of the article
Include the main article AND two other peer reviewed sources that either supports or refutes the information from the main article
What further research can be done on this topic?
Do the findings in the article help solve any practical problems or answer any scientific
questions?
Include works cited on the last page of your presentation.
Attach the PDF for all four articles to this assignment on BlackBoard,

Categories
Criminal Justice

Instructions The Virtual Criminal Justice Alliance….Background Information For

Instructions
The Virtual Criminal Justice Alliance….Background Information
For the past 11 months, the Virtual Police Department has applied a variety of investigative resources and strategies and is prepared to bring a number of criminal charges against the members of the Very Bad Bike Club. These started out as investigations of individual calls-for-service, complaints and criminal investigations. They merged into a collective effort as the pattern of activities and participants began to form. Based on the investigations, the department believes it has probable cause to arrest and charge nearly every one of the 63 VBBC members for conspiracy to manufacture illegal drugs, conspiracy to sell illegal drugs, and participation in a criminal enterprise. Additionally, numerous individual VBBC members can be charged with combinations of individual criminal violations, including possession of illegal drugs, illegal possession of firearms, robbery, attempted robbery, aggravated assault, and attempted murder. Despite the confidence the Chief of the VPD has in these cases, no information has been conveyed to the Office of the District Attorney nor has there been any involvement with the Grand Jury. As far as the Chief of the Police is concerned, this is the chance to destroy the VBBC once and for all.
The VBBC has plagued Virtual for over a decade. Efforts to stop criminal activity by members of the VBBC have been made almost exclusively by the police department, with little or no support from the rest of the Virtual criminal justice system. In the past, most criminal charges brought to the Virtual prosecutor’s office by police detectives have resulted in outright dismissal for lack of probable cause or plea-bargained agreements that reduce potential felony charges to misdemeanors with payable fines. There have been however, two prior instances of massive arrests of VBBC members. Approximately 7 years ago, raids resulted in the confiscation of drugs and weapons and the ultimate conviction of 12 VBBC members. Six of these members are on parole and still reside in Virtual; two others are currently in the county detention center awaiting trial for new criminal charges and four others are confined to the State prison near Virtual. A similar sweep three years ago produced nearly identical results. These sweeps appear to have been ineffective. In short, the VBBC has a network of members in jail, in prison, on parole in the community and free on the street. The current police investigation has affirmed that all of these VBBC members are in near constant communications with each other.
Robert “Buddy” Pole is the “president” of the VBBC. While currently on parole for manufacturing methamphetamine, Buddy Pole continues to orchestrate the criminal enterprise that is VBBC. Provisions of his parole agreement that prohibit association with known criminals have gone unenforced. Robert Pole, Jr, (a.k.a. “Little Buddy” or “Bud Lite”) is currently in the Virtual Detention Center awaiting trial for carrying a concealed weapon. He seems to be in no hurry to make the affordable bail. Jail officials believe he is trying to organize a drug network within the jail. Two Detention Center correctional officers were recently disciplined for attempting to smuggle cell phones into the lock-up. It is believed they were destined for Little Buddy’s use. The youngest member of the Pole family is Patricia (a.k.a. “Tripper”). A chronic truant and troublemaker in school, Tripper was suspected of providing marijuana to her junior high school classmates and has continued the practice in high school. At age 19 and legally an adult, she is just about to complete her senior year of high school. Tripper’s collections of miscreant friends, most of whom are VBBC members or “wannabes”, congregate regularly around the Virtual Mall and commercial centers. Her boyfriend, John Henry Maxwell applied for a job as a Dunbar Security Force officer but was rejected because of his record.
In order to rid the city of Virtual of this criminal gang, Virtual Police Department Chief Clayton Moore called upon his criminal justice partners:
The head of the Virtual Police Department VBBC task force, Captain Jay Silverheels
The chief criminal prosecutor from the Office of the District Attorney, Raymond Burr
The Security Chief of the state correctional facility, Major Allen Irongates
The District Supervisor for the state department of parole, Martha Street
The Operations Director of the Virtual Security Force, James Dunbar
The Virtual Security Force, a private security company hired by the Virtual Commercial Merchants Association to provide security personnel, equipment, etc. to supplement the resources of the Virtual Police Department in designated business and commercial areas of the city. VSF personnel hold special police commissions, have arrest authority on the property of their clients and may or may not be armed depending on their assignment and qualifications.
At their initial meeting, Chief Moore made it clear to these partners that they had a single goal, to end the reign of terror emanating from the VBBC and victimizing Virtual’s citizens. Clearly if there was any hope of success, each criminal justice partner has to do their part for the collective good of all. The Chief’s remarks were met with wholesale agreement. It was decided the Virtual Criminal Justice Alliance would attack the VBBC on two levels (1) the pursuit of the current police investigations and prosecutions, and (2) a strategic plan to work collaboratively to reduce crime in Virtual. When the initial meeting adjourned, Chief Moore had designated Captain Siverheels as his delegate. He was not sure, however, that every agency representative in the room felt his level of commitment or truly understood the consequences of failure. He was also curious as to what resources each “partner” was willing to bring to this operation and what would be held back.
Major Irongate has her own issues with VBBC. Their presence in the state prison has settled down what had previously been a powder keg of gang-related unrest. VBBC has become the dominate force in the prison. John “Jacky” Pole has been able to get the warring national/international gang members in the prison to suspend their violence and focus on drug-related profits. With tensions simmering just below the surface, Irongate knows the self-serving truce may be short lived. Major Irongate was also asked to represent the Virtual Detention Center. This facility holds arrestees awaiting a bail hearing, denied bail prior to trial or in transitional housing from the state prison to attend court. The jail also holds offenders serving short sentences for convictions on misdemeanor charges. Nearly all of the prison’s inmate population came through the Detention Center and may return there to be available for court appearances. Major Irongate is convinced that these “traveling” inmates are being used as “mules” for drugs and contraband cell phones.
Of the persons assembled by Chief Moore, only Dunbar represents a commercial, profit-driven agency. Simply put, these profits are the difference between the costs for the security provided and the fees Dunbar charges. Dunbar is eager to demonstrate a successful partnership with VPD and the Virtual Commercial Merchants’ Association as a stepping-stone to contracts with larger jurisdictions. In any case, Dunbar’s primary motivation is to make money.
Raymond Burr would applaud Chief Moore’s plan if he could, but as a pragmatist, he feels that this is a waste of time. He understands, if no one else at the table does, that plea bargaining is to only way the criminal justice system can do business. He has also warned the chief before that his detectives need additional training on establishing probable cause, proper interrogation procedures, appropriate charging, etc. If the VPD could get its act together he would love to prosecute a good solid case against the VBBC, but prosecuting a “looser” case will not solve the problem or help his own political ambitions.
Assignment 2
Please read the Virtual Criminal Justice Alliance background information prior to beginning your assignment. Note that this background information will be used for each assignment in this course. Also note that the role that you are assigned (according to the first letter of your last name) is the role that you are assigned for the entire course assignment.
This assignment is based on one of the following criminal justice components (select the component that corresponds to the first letter of your last name). In each assignment in this course, it will be from the perspective of this role that you will be expected to address each part of the assignment.
Institution-Based Corrections (Last name begins with K- O)
NOTE: Within your assigned role provided above, you are to take on the role within that broad category that you ascribed to in assignment 1. Students are encouraged to (reasonably) embellish on the character of the person they are assigned and play that role to the fullest. Keep in mind the role’s span of control and from whom else in the component you might need to gain support from to accomplish your goal(s).
Assignment 2: Component/Agency Perspective and Role
Directions: For this assignment you are to write a paper addressing the perspective and role your component/ agency has in dealing with the problem presented. You are to address the following:
Describe the perspective and role that your component/agency has in dealing with the problem presented in the “Virtual Criminal Justice Alliance Background Information”.
Discuss what both the traditional and practical approaches are for the component/agency dealing with the problem.
Identify and discuss a minimum of three reasons why there has been a reluctance to change approaches/strategies in dealing with the problem.
Discuss at least three motivations that would be required to affect a different approach or strategy (other than direction from a higher jurisdictional authority)
Format Directions:
Paper must be double spaced, 11 or 12 pt font and 1”margins all around.
All APA 7th edition format requirements must be followed (cover page, in text citations, reference page). Refer to APA/UMGC – learning resources found in the content page of this course.
You must have resources to support your thoughts/opinions/information. These must be cited both in text as well as at the end of the document. Your paper should not contain direct quotes, sourced material must be paraphrased.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Describing and explaining social phenomena is a complex task. Box’s quote speaks

Describing and explaining social phenomena is a complex task. Box’s quote speaks to the point that it is a near impossible undertaking to fully explain such systems—physical or social—using a set of models. Yet even though these models contain some error, the models nevertheless assist with illuminating how the world works and advancing social change.
The competent quantitative researcher understands the balance between making statements related to theoretical understanding of relationships and recognizing that our social systems are of such complexity that we will always have some error. The key, for the rigorous researcher, is recognizing and mitigating the error as much as possible.
As a graduate student and consumer of research, you must recognize the error that might be present within your research and the research of others.
To prepare for this Discussion:
* Use the Walden Library Course Guide and Assignment Help found in this week’s Learning Resources to search for and select a quantitative article that interests you and that has social change implications.
* As you read the article, reflect on George Box’s quote in the introduction for this discussion.
Post a very brief descriiption (1–3 sentences) of the article you found and address the following:
1. Describe how you think the research in the article is useful (e.g., what population is it helping? What problem is it solving?).
2. Using Y=f(X) +E notation, identify the independent and dependent variables.
3. How might the research models presented be wrong? What types of error might be present in the reported research?
Question:
Remembering that all research has some error, respond to at least one colleague’s post and comment on how we as social change agents and critical consumers of research can balance the usefulness with the error in the research. Do we throw the research out because of too much error, or is there something useful that it can tell us?
Resources:
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2020). Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
* Chapter 1, “The What and the Why of Statistics” (pp. 1–25)
Wagner, III, W. E. (2020). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social science statistics (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
* Chapter 1, “Overview”
Dietz, T., & Kalof, L. (2009). Introduction to social statistics: The logic of statistical reasoning. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
Introduction to Social Statistics: The Logic of Statistical Reasoning, 1st Edition by Dietz, T.; Kalof, L. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons – Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons – Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
* Chapter 1, “An Introduction to Quantitative Analysis” (pp. 1–31)     
Dietz, T., & Kalof, L. (2009). Introduction to social statistics: The logic of statistical reasoning. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
Introduction to Social Statistics: The Logic of Statistical Reasoning, 1st Edition by Dietz, T.; Kalof, L. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons – Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons – Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
* Chapter 2, “Some Basic Concepts” (pp. 33–63)
Introduction to Social Statistics: The Logic of Statistical Reasoning, 1st Edition by Dietz, T.; Kalof, L. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons – Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons – Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Walden University Library. (n.d.). Course Guide and Assignment Help for RSCH 8210. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/rsch8210
For help with this week’s research, see this Course Guide and related weekly assignment resources.
Use this SPSS Resource page to guide you as you as you download, install and register your SPSS software.
Note: You will use this software throughout this course to perform various statistical calculations.
Datasets
Walden’s SPSS website: http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/SPSS
Your instructor will post the datasets for the course in the Doc Sharing section and in an Announcement. Your instructor may also recommend using a different dataset from the ones provided here
Required Media
Milgram, A. (2013). Why smart statistics are the key to fighting crime [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/anne_milgram_why_smart_statistics_are_the_key_to_fighting_crime
 
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 12 minutes.
 
In this media program, Anne Milgram discusses how smart statistics are used to fight crime. Focus on the statement “all models are wrong, but some are useful.”
Price, M. (2015). Statistician promotes social justice and human rights [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=orW01w8a4zY
 
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 2 minutes.
 
In this media program, statistician Megan Price explains how she uses statistics to advance social justice issues and protect human rights.
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016e). Introduction and demonstration of SPSS [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
 
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 4 minutes.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Write a 1,050- to 1,250-word executive summary of the U.S. and Canadian emergenc

Write a 1,050- to 1,250-word executive summary of the U.S. and Canadian emergency management systems. Address the following in your executive summary:
Describe the U.S. emergency management system.
Describe the Canadian emergency management system.
Explain the steps involved in a multinational response involving both countries.
Discuss how interagency collaboration and communication can be maintained when systems existing in the United States and Canada are disparate.
Cite 2 sources.
Format your executive summary according to APA guidelines.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Police Body Cameras: Seeing May Be Believing. Instructions OBJECTIVES: Understan

Police Body Cameras: Seeing May Be Believing.
Instructions
OBJECTIVES:
Understand the relationship between police body camera and police behavior/brutality.
Decide whether there is a conflict between maintaining individual rights of privacy (due process), and controlling crime (public safety) and police accountability.
We should conclude this week with identifying issues concerning police accountability, transperency, crime control and individual rights.

Categories
Criminal Justice

ASSIGNMENT WEEK 1: Quantitative research consists of testing and understanding

ASSIGNMENT WEEK 1:
Quantitative research consists of testing and understanding relationships between variables. Researchers construct these variables as measureable expressions of social phenomena. Modern statistics provides you with a host of resources to answer questions, but each statistical test has a set of assumptions regarding the measurement of the variables. It is therefore important to understand how variables are measured because their measurement will influence the type of analytic tools available to you.
SPSS is a statistical software program that allows you to enter these variables into a spreadsheet format and record the measurements from a sample. Additionally, SPSS allows you to perform statistical analysis. Before launching into your analyses, though, it is important to understand how the variables are measured. That understanding will help you interpret the SPSS output.
In this week’s Discussion, you considered topics with social change implications. For this Assignment, you will examine data to analyze independent and dependent variables, determine how they are measured, and decipher whether a social change question can be answered and the implications for such change.
To prepare for this Assignment:
* Review the Learning Resources as well as the SPSS resources found in this week’s Learning Resources.
* Review, download, and install the SPSS software on your computer using the IBM SPSS Installation and Registration document for PC or for MAC in this week’s Learning Resources.
* Using the SPSS software, open the Afrobarometer dataset or the High School Longitudinal Study dataset (whichever you choose) found in this week’s Learning Resources and then choose two variables that interest you.
For this Assignment:
Write a 1- to 2-page summary and include the following:
* Early in your Assignment, when you relate which dataset you analyzed, please include the mean of the following variables. If you are using the Afrobarometer Dataset, report the mean of Q1 (Age). If you are using the HS Long Survey Dataset, report the mean of X1SES.
* A descriiption of what the each of the variables measure.
* A descriiption of the unit of analysis.
* A descriiption and explanation of the levels of measurement for each variable (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio).
* Explain how you might conceive these variables to be used to answer a social change question. What might be the implications for social change?
Support your summary using appropriate scholarly citations and references. Use proper APA format.
Resources:
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2020). Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
* Chapter 1, “The What and the Why of Statistics” (pp. 1–25)
Wagner, III, W. E. (2020). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social science statistics (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
* Chapter 1, “Overview”
Dietz, T., & Kalof, L. (2009). Introduction to social statistics: The logic of statistical reasoning. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
Introduction to Social Statistics: The Logic of Statistical Reasoning, 1st Edition by Dietz, T.; Kalof, L. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons – Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons – Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
* Chapter 1, “An Introduction to Quantitative Analysis” (pp. 1–31)     
Dietz, T., & Kalof, L. (2009). Introduction to social statistics: The logic of statistical reasoning. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
Introduction to Social Statistics: The Logic of Statistical Reasoning, 1st Edition by Dietz, T.; Kalof, L. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons – Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons – Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
* Chapter 2, “Some Basic Concepts” (pp. 33–63)
Introduction to Social Statistics: The Logic of Statistical Reasoning, 1st Edition by Dietz, T.; Kalof, L. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons – Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons – Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Walden University Library. (n.d.). Course Guide and Assignment Help for RSCH 8210. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/rsch8210
For help with this week’s research, see this Course Guide and related weekly assignment resources.
Use this SPSS Resource page to guide you as you as you download, install and register your SPSS software.
Note: You will use this software throughout this course to perform various statistical calculations.
Datasets
Walden’s SPSS website: http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/SPSS
Your instructor will post the datasets for the course in the Doc Sharing section and in an Announcement. Your instructor may also recommend using a different dataset from the ones provided here
Required Media
Milgram, A. (2013). Why smart statistics are the key to fighting crime [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/anne_milgram_why_smart_statistics_are_the_key_to_fighting_crime
 
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 12 minutes.
 
In this media program, Anne Milgram discusses how smart statistics are used to fight crime. Focus on the statement “all models are wrong, but some are useful.”
Price, M. (2015). Statistician promotes social justice and human rights [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=orW01w8a4zY
 
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 2 minutes.
 
In this media program, statistician Megan Price explains how she uses statistics to advance social justice issues and protect human rights.
Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016e). Introduction and demonstration of SPSS [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
 
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 4 minutes.