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A six page (1900 / 2150 words) paper on one of the topics below, or on a topic o

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A six page (1900 / 2150 words) paper on one of the topics below, or on a topic of your choice related to something we have covered in the course up to this point and approved by me. Use our textbooks, the assigned readings, and the internet as sources. Due on Canvas Saturday, July 23.
Possible Topics:
1. Conservatism and liberalism in the art and practice of medicine in the Europe of the Renaissance and Enlightenment.
2. How the scientific revolution that began in Europe in Renaissance contributed to and fostered the world dominance of western medicine.
3. The chain of individuals and insights from Vesalius to Harvey that gradually undermined the reverence accorded to Galen.
4. The role of disease in Europe’s success in colonizing of the Western Hemisphere.
The attached article, along with the professional referees’ comments that follow, reflect current thinking, and the difficulty of coming up with exact figures.
As opposed to the one-out-of-five conceptions that survive to life birth figures that I gave you from an older Georgetown study, the author of the attached article suggests that the number of spontaneous abortions to conceptions is much less, probably between 40 and 60 % of conceptions. Note that one of professional reviewers of the article suggests that the figure should be 50 to 70 %, but approved and supported the publication of the article as a significant contribution.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5443340/
REQUIRED READINGS
The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. Roy Porter. W.W. Norton. 1997. ISBN 978-0-393-31980.
Medicine and Western Civilization. David J. Rothman, Steven Marcus, and Stephanie A. Kiceluk. Rutgers University Press. 1995. ISBN 978-0-8135-2190-9.
Students must own or have easy access to both textbooks. Additional required readings will be posted on Canvas.
Helpful resources:
From the Mayo Clinic
https://libraryguides.mayo.edu/medicalhistory (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
From the Association of College and Research Libraries and the National Library of Medicine
https://crln.acrl.org/index.php/crlnews/article/view/9216/10220 (Links to an external site.)
COURSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of the course, students will be able to:
Articulate in class discussion examples of how the historical advance of medical knowledge and practice is tied to cultural and social structures.
Defend and take seriously in discussion and in writing past (and even discredited) medical knowledge and practices on their own terms rather than judging them by today’s standards and knowledge.
Reflect in weekly essays and shorter research papers upon the interaction of medical advances with religion, politics, arts and culture and their mutual impacts.
Demonstrate a familiarity with the lives of important medical practitioners and researchers and the difficulties that arise when new knowledge confronts long standing convictions and prejudices.
Demonstrate and summarize in a final longer paper how the historical advances in medical knowledge and applications consistently reflect that while medicine is a science its practice is at the same time and forever will be an art.
COURSE DESCRIPTION
A survey of the development of medical knowledge and practice from ancient time down through modern times. Special attention is given to understanding these developments and advances in the context of the cultures and the historical and societal circumstances in which they occurred.

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